Intelligent Addressable Fire Alarm Systems offer benefits in terms of speed of detection, identification of the location of fire and easier maintenance. Intelligent systems also offer tolerance to faults in the system wiring, which allows a single pair of wires to be used to connect up to 200 devices to the system, allowing cost savings in the wiring of large systems. In larger installations, the benefits of improved maintenance and reduced cabling cost are overwhelming. The price difference between intelligent and conventional systems has narrowed to such an extent that even for small installations, the use of intelligent fire alarm system should be considered. The primary difference between Intelligent Addressable and Conventional Systems is that the wiring is looped, and that detectors, call points, sounders and interface modules are all connected on the same pair of wires. Each device connected on the detection loop has its own address, usually set by means of a pair of switches on the back of the device. The panel constantly communicates with each device in turn on the detection loop, and if any of the devices indicate an alarm condition or a fault, the panel can immediately identify which device generated the signal and trigger an alarm or fault condition.

Intelligent systems allow the location of fire to be precisely located from the control panel. The use of looped wiring allows the system to function normally even with an open circuit in the loop wiring. The wiring cost of a system can be reduced by the use of a single pair of wires for up to 200 devices. The use of short circuit isolators allows correct operation of most of the system even with a short circuit in loop wiring. Detectors are constantly monitored for correct operation. The use of a 'pre-alarm' feature alerts staff to check weather a fire condition exists before the alarm is raised. Different detector sensitiveness can be used for diverse applications. The sensitivity of detectors is monitored constantly and any change in sensitivity causes a fault indication at the panel. The use of addressable loop-powered sounders allows the same wiring to be used for sensors, call points and sounders. The use of monitor modules allows contacts from sprinkler switches, existing fire alarm systems, fire dampers etc. to be monitored using detector loop wiring. The use of control modules allows sounder lines, air conditioning systems, lifts etc. to be controlled or shut down using detector loop wiring. Drift compensation allows constant sensitivity to be maintained even when detectors become contaminated.

The Smart Cards as the name suggests are an active device and have a memory chip attached to it to store the data. These cards are used not only for access but other applications like cash vending centers, canteen applications etc. The cards are available either in a contact or contact less format. These cards are used in conjunction with smart card readers / writers.

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